Advertising is, no doubt, an indispensable aspect in the business world. But unscientific advertising (i.e., trial and error method of advertising devised without due deliberation as to its scope and purpose) cannot be successful in promoting sales. It is only the scientific advertising that can be successful in attaining its main aim of promotion of sales.
Meaning of Scientific Advertising
Scientific advertising may be defined as properly planned advertising based on a serious deliberation of all factors that have a bearing on its success. It involves
- The development of a clear idea of the problem to be solved.
- The recognition of the alternatives to the solution of the problem.
- The collection of all data that would help in selecting a particular alternative.
Scientific advertising is one which develops and uses a scientific approach (i.e., fact-finding approach) to the formulation and execution of an advertising programme. In short, scientific advertising means properly planned advertising.
Phases or Stages of Scientific Advertising
Scientific advertising has four phases. They are:
1. Preliminary investigation.
2. Budgeting and media planning.
3. Execution of the advertising programme.
4. Testing of the results.
1. Preliminary investigation
Any scientific plan is to be based on facts. As such, the first stage or step in scientific advertising is preliminary investigation. Preliminary investigation refers to the collection of information about the markets, products to be advertised and the requirements of the consumers and their buying motives. These information can be collected through
- market identification;
- product analysis; and
- consumer research or motivation research.
Market identification refers to the identification of the market for the product, i.e., the geographical area which offers the best market for the product, its composition, i.e, (whether it consists of women or men; rich, poor or middle class people, traders or industrialists), and the conditions of the market (i.e., the tradition, competition, etc., present in the market).
Product analysis refers to the analysis of the product to find out the class into which the product falls (i e., whether it is a luxury product or necessary product or industrial goods or consumer goods), thy possible uses of the product, the construction and quality of the product, the package of the product, the unit of sale and price, etc.
Consumer research or motivation research refers to the study of the needs and desires of the consumers and the reasons as to why the consumers use the advertised product in preference to other products.
2. Budgeting and media Planning
Budgeting refers to the appropriation for advertising (i.e., the determination of the amount that should be spent on advertising). In several cases, budgeting (allocation of funds) is made on the basis of the appropriation for advertising made by the rival firms. This is not a scientific approach. In scientific advertising, the appropriation for advertising must be determined with reference to the clearly laid down objectives and targets of the advertising programme.
Media planning refers to the selection of the media of advertising. In scientific advertising, the media of advertising must be selected on a careful consideration of the size of the market, the relative effectiveness of the various alternative media in reaching the consumers, the relative cost of the various media, etc.
3. Execution of the Advertising Programme
In scientific advertising, the actual execution of the advertising programme should be in accordance with the advertising plan formulated on the basis of research and investigation.
4. Testing of Results
The last phase or step in a programme of scientific advertising is the testing of results. Testing of results refers to the evaluation of the performance of the advertising programme in the light of advertising plan. In other words, it refers to the testing or evaluation of the effectiveness of the advertisement programme.
It indicates to the number of people to whom the advertisement had reached and how it was received by them (i.e., the depth of the impact). The results known can be put to use in formulating future advertising programmes.