Concepts of Job Analysis
Of the various problems connected with the personnel, problems relating to selection, placement, training, promotions and determination of wage rates can be effectively solved only when the management carries out a detailed analysis and evaluation of each job. In fact, employees cannot make a proper selection of workers, for a job without the precise knowledge of the job, which is in question.
If every job is properly analyzed, designing and operating of a satisfactory wage system would become easy. In every organization, whether big or small, both the employees and employer are keenly interested in the design and operation of the wage system.
An unsystematic wage structure not only affects the level of workers’ earnings but also their morale and efficiency. It even causes bitterness and resentment amongst the employees. All these factors shall finally lead the organization to failure and its closure.
Therefore in order to avoid all these problems, every organization should make proper analysis and evaluation of each job. They not only aims in designing a fair wage system but also act as invaluable tools in matters of placement, promotion and transfer.
Meaning and Definition of a Job
A job is a collection of tasks, duties and responsibilities assigned to individual employees. For each job, there should be one position in each enterprise. For example, Production Manager, Sales Manager. As against this, there may be a number of persons to perform the same job. For example, clerks, salesmen, supervisors, etc.
Each job must have a definite name. The job should be named on the basis of definite trade specifications. This will avoid confusion. Without proper definition and meaning of each job, assignment of the job to proper employees would become impossible. After preparing the job definitions, the next step is to analyze the job.
Meaning and Definition of Job Analysis
Job analysis is the first step in installing and operating an evaluation programme. It deals with determining the characteristics of each job. It is a procedure through which the facts with respect.to each job are secured, organized and combined. It is also known as job study.
Definition of Job Analysis by John A. Shubin
Job analysis is the methodical compilation and study of work data in order to define and characterize each occupation in such a manner as to distinguish it from all others.
Definition of Job Analysis by Harry L. Wylie
Job analysis is the complete study of the job (or position) embodying every known and determinable factor including the duties and responsibilities involved in its performance; the conditions under which performance is carried or, the nature of the task, the qualifications required by the worker and the conditions of employment such as pay, hours, opportunities and privileges.
Definition of Job Analysis by National Personnel Association
Job analysis is a process which results in establishing elements of job and ascertaining the human qualifications necessary for its useful performances .
From these definitions, it is clear that job analysis comprises of three phases such as:
- Collection of Information.
- Preparation of Job Descriptions.
- Working up of Job Specifications.
Four Point Formula for Job Analysis
The Workman Power commission in U.S.A. has suggested a four point job analysis formula to be used in making an accurate and useful job analysis. The points included in the formula are:
- What the worker does?
- How he does it?
- Why he does it?
- How much of skill is required for doing it?
Procedure for Job Analysis
It is already stated that there are three phases in every job analysis. They are:
1. Collection of Data and Information
First of all, necessary and relevant data connected with each job must be collected. Such data is generally collected from the following sources:
- Questionnaires completed by job holders.
- Diaries maintained by job holders.
- Personal interviews, and
- Personal observations.
2. Preparation of Job Descriptions
The analyst should then prepare job description, by condensing the data to represent an accurate and complete picture of the distinguishing features of each job in terms of the task and occupational requirements.
3. Working Up of Job Specifications
Finally, the job analyst should draw upon a standard form, the job specifications which precisely stipulate the skills, operation routines, responsibilities, types of efforts, working conditions and other requirements of a job. The job specifications serve as a source of data for job rating.
Merits of Job Analysis
Job analysis has several points to its credit. They are:
1. Recruitment and Selection of Personnel
Job analysis aids in setting out job-specifications, The job specifications serve as the basis for recruitment and selection of right person for the right job.
It also aids in designing a suitable training programme. Effective training programme based upon proper analysis of the job ensures successful performance of the job.
3. Job Evaluation
A job cannot be properly evaluated unless it is scientifically analyzed. In fact, job analysis is the first step in job evaluation. It is only through job analysis the employer can understand the skills and abilities required to perform the task, the working conditions under which the job is to be performed and the difficulties involved in performing the job.
4. Evaluation of Performance
It provides the basis for the objective appraisal and control of performance. It makes it possible to know how far an employee has been successful in completing the work assigned to him.
5. Promotions and Transfers
On the basis of job analysis, the management formulates policies regarding promotions and transfers of employees.
6. Employment Guidance
Job analysis also helps in identifying the jobs for which each employee has the necessary qualifications. This ensures placement of right job.
7. Labour Relations
Job analysis also helps in forming the basis for resolving disputes relating to standards of performance expected from the workers.
Demerits of Job Analysis
Job analysis, in spite of the various points to its credit, suffers from a number of defects. The following points must be noted in this context:
1. Job analysis is mainly confined to job aspects describing the duties and responsibilities and working conditions only. But it cares little about the personal traits of the workers.
2. The personal factors cannot be defined in quantitative terms. Even if an attempt is made to describe personal qualities, it would be abstract and vague. It can be described in qualitative terms only. However, a psychological study of occupations can effectively overcome the defects. The modern psychological technique can contribute considerably in making job analysis more precise, exact, scientific and useful.