Managers perform different roles as shown in the image. As can be seen from the figure, formal authority gives rise to three informational roles. Various roles played by manager in an organization are briefly explained below.
1. Figurehead Role of Manager
Managers perform the duties of a ceremonial and symbolic in nature such as welcoming official visitors, signing legal documents etc as head of the organization or strategic business unit or department.
Duties of interpersonal roles include routine, involving little serious communication and less important decisions. However, they are important for the smooth functioning of an organization or department.
2. Leadership Role of Manager
All managers have a leadership role. The manager, as in charge of the organization / department, coordinates the work of others and leads his subordinates.
This role includes hiring, training, motivating and disciplining employees. Formal authority and functional authority provides greater potential power to exercise and get the things done.
3. Liaison Role of Manager
As the leader of the organization or unit, the manager has to perform the functions of motivation, communication, encouraging team spirit and the like. Further, he has to coordinate the activities of all his subordinates, which involves the activity of liaison.
This role also requires the manager to interact with other managers outside the organization to secure favours and information. In this role, the manager represents his organization in all matters of formality.
4. Monitor Role of Manager
As a result of the network of contacts, the manager gets the information by scanning his environment, subordinates, peers and superiors.
The manager seeks and receives information concerning internal and external events so as to gain understanding of the organization and its environment. Typically this is done through reading magazines and talking with others to learn the changes in the public’s tastes, what competitors may be planning, and the like.
Managers, mostly collect information in verbal form often as gossip, hearsay, speculation and through grapevine channels.
5. Disseminator Role of Manager
Manager disseminates the information, he collects from different sources and through various means. He passes some of the privileged information directly to his subordinates, peers and superiors who otherwise have no access to it. This information is gathered by him from his environments and from his own equals in the organization.
The manager will play an important role in disseminating the information to his subordinates, when they don’t have contact with one another.
6. Spokesman Role of Manager
Managers also perform a spokesperson role when they represent the organization to outsiders. Manager is required to speak on behalf of the organization and transmit information on organization’s plan, policies and actions.
The manager has to keep his superior informed of every development in his unit, who in turn inform the insiders and outsiders. Directors and shareholders must be informed about the financial performance, customers must be informed about the new product developments, quality maintenance, government officials about implementation of law etc.
7. Entrepreneurial Role of Manager
As an entrepreneur, the manager is a creator and innovator. He initiates and oversee new products that will improve their organization’s performance.
He seeks to improve his department, adapt to the changing environmental factors. The manager would like to have new ideas, initiates new projects and initiates the developmental projects.
8. Disturbance Handler Role of Manager
As a disturbance handler, managers take corrective action to response to previously unforeseen problems. Disturbance handler role presents the manager as the involuntarily responding to pressures. Pressures of the situation are severe and highly demand the attention of the manager and as such the manager cannot ignore the situation.
For example, worker strike, declining sales, bankruptcy of a major customer etc. The manager should have enough time in handling disturbance carefully, skilfully and effectively.
9. Resource Allocator Role of Manager
The most important resource that a manager allocates to his subordinates is his time. As a resource allocator, managers are responsible for allocating human, physical and monetary resources. Accordingly, setting up of a time schedule for the completion of an operation or approval of expenditure on a particular project, etc., are the functions which the managers perform in the role of a resource allocator.
The manager should have an open-door policy and allow the subordinates to express their opinions and share their experiences. This process helps both the manager and his subordinates in making effective decisions. In addition, the manager should empower his subordinates by delegating his authority and power.
10. Negotiator Role of Manager
In this tole, the manager represents the organization in bargaining and negotiations with outsiders and insiders, in order to gain advantages for his own unit. He negotiates with the subordinates for improved commitment and loyalty, with the peers for cooperation, coordination and integration, with workers and their unions regarding conditions of employment, commitment, productivity, with the government about providing facilities for business expansion etc.
These negotiations are integral part of the manager’s job for only he has authority to commit organizational resources and has nerve centre of information.
Though the different roles of a manager are discussed separately for convenience, they are in fact inseparable. The manager has to perform these roles simultaneously by integrating one with the another.
Thus, the major role of the manager is integrating all the roles while playing managerial role or performing his tasks. In fact, the manager cannot play any role isolating the other roles. As a strategist, the manager has to integrate all the roles in decision-making and performing his tasks.