Principles of Office Organization
Nobody is able to identify the activities of office organization. The activities are changing according to the changes in the situation and the requirements of business organization. There is no tailor made way of organizing the office to meet all situations. Some principles are used as guidelines for organizing the office. These principles are briefly explained below:
1. Objectives and Purpose: The very purpose of any office organization is to avoid waste of time and duplication of work. At the same time, it aims at maximum coordination among all the departments. In this way, an office organization takes all efforts to achieve the common objectives with the unity of all departments.
2. Division of Work or Specialization: The activities of the office should be divided according to functions and assigned to persons according to their specialization.
3. Principle of Efficiency: The office activities are assigned to an employee on the basis of talent or skill or efficiency what he possess. An effective and economical way of attaining the objectives are possible through applying principle of efficiency.
4. Unity of Command: Each subordinate or an employee should know who is his/her superior, to whom he/she is answerable and whose orders he/she has to obey for smooth functioning of an office. More than one superior to an employee or subordinate creates confusion and disorder in the office organization.
5. Principle of Definiteness: Each job in the business organization should be well defined. If so, the specified job can be easily distributed or assigned to an employee. Besides, every employee must definitely know of his/her position in the business organization and purpose thereof.
6. Scalar Principle: This principle is also known as Chain of Authority or Chain of Command. There should be a clear cut and well defined line of authority in the office organization. If so, everybody knows to whom he/she is responsible and to whom he / she is not answerable.
7. Principle of Span of Management: This principle is also known as span of supervision. There is a limit to supervise the number of subordinate effectively by an executive i.e. span of supervision. This principle is taken into consideration while allocating activities to departments, divisions, sections etc.
8. Principle of Authority: An authority is a tool by which an executive do the work in order to achieve the desired objectives in an office. Hence, the authority of each position in an office should be clearly defined.
9. Delegation of Authority: A subordinate gets his/her authority from his/her immediate superior in the same line of hierarchy. Therefore, authority always flows downward.
10. Responsibility: A superior is held responsible for whatever the acts of his/her subordinates. It means that a superior should not be allowed to avoid responsibility by delegating authority to his/her subordinates. Authority can be delegated but the responsibility cannot be delegated at any cost by the superior.
11. Principle of Authority Level for Decision-Making: Decisions are taken according to the level of authority vested with the employees in an office. It should be noted that decision making process starts from bottom to upwards. If a decision is not taken or fails to take a decision at lower level, high level authority personnel is going to take a decision. At the same time, if high level authority personnel is not taken a decision or fails to take a decision, a lower level authority personnel is not able to take a decision;
12. Simplicity: The level of authority should be minimum in number. If so, organization structure is simple in nature. A simple organization structure is highly responsible for effective performance of work instead of creating problems and confusion for effective communication and coordination.
13. Coordination: Coordination is essential to bring unity of action in an office organization. The organization structure should establish relationship among the employees to secure coordination.
14. Flexible: The organization structure should be flexible in nature. If so, it is adoptable at any time according to the changing circumstances and permit expansion.
15. Principle of Parity of Authority and Responsibility: Authority is delegated according to the nature of work. At the same time, responsibility is fixed according to the level of authority vested with the employee who is going to perform the work. It means that an employee must have sufficient authority to discharge the responsibility entrusted to him/her.
16. Balance: The identified activities are grouped on anyone of the basis. Now, the grouping of activities has the equal weightage in all the departments. It means that no department or division or section has more activities than any other department or division or section. There should be a balance among all the departments while grouping of activities.
17. Continuity: An organization structure should be designed in such a way that ensures the existence of a business organization in the long run and must permit the growth and expansion of an office organization in the days to come.
18. Personal Ability: A selected office staff must be trained to get talent according to the nature and volume of work assigned to him/her. If so, an office organization is in a position to achieve the specified objectives without any delay.
19. Principle of Leadership Facilitation: An organization structure should be designed for the growth of leadership position in the different levels of management.