On-the-job training is considered as the most effective and widely used method of training. Under this method, the worker is assigned to a specific job. He is generally instructed by his immediate supervisor or an experienced employee of the same department. The nature of the job, the method of handling the machine and using the tools, and the method of performing the tasks are all explained to him. Then he is asked to operate the machine in the course of actual production process. Thus, training and output go hand-in-hand.
Forms of On-the-job Training
On-the-job training may take any one of the following forms.
1. Coaching: Under this method, the superior teaches job knowledge and skills to a subordinate. The emphasis in this method is learning by doing.
2. Under Study: Under this method, the superior gives training to a subordinate under his duty. The subordinate acts as the student of the superior. He is also called as the heir apparent or successor to fill the vacancy caused by the promotion or retirement of his superior.
3. Position Flotation: Under this method, the trainee is periodically rotated from job to job instead of sticking in one particular job. He can acquire a general background of different jobs.
Limitations of On-the-job training method
1. In practice, it takes longer time to train the employee.
2. If the supervisor is unable to devote more time, much of the work will be spoiled.
3. Expert guidance is possible only when the superior himself is an expert.
4 Trainees are often subjected to distractions of a noisy shop or office
This method is contrast to the on-the-job method. Under this method, new workers are trained for specific jobs on special machines or equipment in a separate room located in the plant or workshop itself. An experienced workman is entrusted with the task of training. He should actually demonstrate the machine. Besides, other devices such as lecture, conference, group discussion, role playing, etc, are also used to impart training. This method is suitable only when a large number of new recruit are to be trained simultaneously.
Merits of Vestibule Training
1. The trainer is a specialist and an experienced teacher as well.
2. Since the training is given off-the-job, the trainer has no other work other than teaching Hence, he can concentrate on teaching.
3. It does not interfere with the regular work.
4 It avoids the inconvenience of on-the-job method. Hence, the trainee can learn the job within a shorter period.
Limitations of Vestibule Training
1. Training a conducted in artificial conditions.
2. It is an expensive affair. Hence small firms cannot resort to this type of training.
3. This method is not suitable to train one or two employees.
4. Splitting of responsibility may lead to organizational problems.
Apprenticeship training is one of the earliest methods of training. This method originated in the age of hand craftsman, when the individual craftsman taught the practical skills to the apprentice Under this method, the new employees are required to work as an apprentice to the expert This method Is widely used in those trades in which longer period is required for gaining all round proficiency.
Merits of Apprenticeship Training
1. A skilled work force is maintained.
2. Trainees receive some stipend during the training period.
3. The workmanship is high and good. Therefore, the trainees have a good demand in the labour market.
4. It is comparatively cheap because only nominal amount is paid to the trainees as stipend.
5. It reduces the labour cost, production cost and the labour turnover.
Limitations of Apprenticeship Training
1. It is a time consuming process. The trainees have to undergo training for many years.
2. Rigid standards are insisted. Hence this method is not flexible.
3. If the worker fails to learn sufficiently, he shall not be appointed in the firm.
4. There is also no guarantee that the trainee after the training shall continue in the same firm.
5. This type of training tend to stress time instead of achievements.
Under this method, the students get practical training while they study Thus. this method is based on the cooperation between the employers and the vocational or technical institutions A few large undertakings have their own training institutes Under this method a balance between theory and practice is maintained.
This method is highly suitable to train skilled and technical personnel and not for others Besides, it is also a time consuming process.
Learners are employees selected for semi skilled jobs and those who do not even have basic knowledge of Industrial Engineering. The learners are first given formal education in vocational schools for some time. Then they are trained in the operation of machines. After the completion of the training course, they are put on regular lob in the factory.
Besides, there are also a number of off the job methods worth mentioning. Lectures, group discussions, conference are all devised to supplement the knowledge of the trainees depending on the circumstances and requirements, one or two methods or a combination of two or more methods can be followed.