Tools or Techniques of Financial Statement Analysis
Important tools or techniques of financial statement analysis are as follows.
- Comparative Statement or Comparative Financial and Operating Statements.
- Common Size Statements.
- Trend Ratios or Trend Analysis.
- Average Analysis.
- Statement of Changes in Working Capital.
- Fund Flow Analysis.
- Cash Flow Analysis.
- Ratio Analysis.
- Cost Volume Profit Analysis
A brief explanation of the tools or techniques of financial statement analysis presented below.
1. Comparative Statements
Comparative statements deal with the comparison of different items of the Profit and Loss Account and Balance Sheets of two or more periods. Separate comparative statements are prepared for Profit and Loss Account as Comparative Income Statement and for Balance Sheets.
As a rule, any financial statement can be presented in the form of comparative statement such as comparative balance sheet, comparative profit and loss account, comparative cost of production statement, comparative statement of working capital and the like.
2. Comparative Income Statement
Three important information are obtained from the Comparative Income Statement. They are Gross Profit, Operating Profit and Net Profit. The changes or the improvement in the profitability of the business concern is find out over a period of time. If the changes or improvement is not satisfactory, the management can find out the reasons for it and some corrective action can be taken.
3. Comparative Balance Sheet
The financial condition of the business concern can be find out by preparing comparative balance sheet. The various items of Balance sheet for two different periods are used. The assets are classified as current assets and fixed assets for comparison. Likewise, the liabilities are classified as current liabilities, long term liabilities and shareholders’ net worth. The term shareholders’ net worth includes Equity Share Capital, Preference Share Capital, Reserves and Surplus and the like.
4. Common Size Statements
A vertical presentation of financial information is followed for preparing common-size statements. Besides, the rupee value of financial statement contents are not taken into consideration. But, only percentage is considered for preparing common size statement.
The total assets or total liabilities or sales is taken as 100 and the balance items are compared to the total assets, total liabilities or sales in terms of percentage. Thus, a common size statement shows the relation of each component to the whole. Separate common size statement is prepared for profit and loss account as Common Size Income Statement and for balance sheet as Common Size Balance Sheet.
5. Trend Analysis
The ratios of different items for various periods are find out and then compared under this analysis. The analysis of the ratios over a period of years gives an idea of whether the business concern is trending upward or downward. This analysis is otherwise called as Pyramid Method.
6. Average Analysis
Whenever, the trend ratios are calculated for a business concern, such ratios are compared with industry average. These both trends can be presented on the graph paper also in the shape of curves. This presentation of facts in the shape of pictures makes the analysis and comparison more comprehensive and impressive.
7. Statement of Changes in Working Capital
The extent of increase or decrease of working capital is identified by preparing the statement of changes in working capital. The amount of net working capital is calculated by subtracting the sum of current liabilities from the sum of current assets. It does not detail the reasons for changes in working capital.
8. Fund Flow Analysis
Fund flow analysis deals with detailed sources and application of funds of the business concern for a specific period. It indicates where funds come from and how they are used during the period under review. It highlights the changes in the financial structure of the company.
9. Cash Flow Analysis
Cash flow analysis is based on the movement of cash and bank balances. In other words, the movement of cash instead of movement of working capital would be considered in the cash flow analysis. There are two types of cash flows. They are actual cash flows and notional cash flows.
10. Ratio Analysis
Ratio analysis is an attempt of developing meaningful relationship between individual items (or group of items) in the balance sheet or profit and loss account. Ratio analysis is not only useful to internal parties of business concern but also useful to external parties. Ratio analysis highlights the liquidity, solvency, profitability and capital gearing.
11. Cost Volume Profit Analysis
This analysis discloses the prevailing relationship among sales, cost and profit. The cost is divided into two. They are fixed cost and variable cost. There is a constant relationship between sales and variable cost. Cost analysis enables the management for better profit planning.