Banks have always played an important position in the country’s economy. They play a decisive role in the development of the industry and trade. They are acting not only as the custodian of the wealth of the country but also as resources of the country, which are necessary for the economic development of a nation. We shall now discuss the contributions made by the banks for the economic development of the nation.
Role of Commercial banks in economic development of a country
1. Capital Formation: Banks play an important role in capital formation, which is essential for the economic development of a country. They mobilize the small savings of the people scattered over a wide area through their network of branches all over the country and make it available for productive purposes. Now-a-days, banks offer very attractive schemes to attract the people to save their money with them and bring the savings mobilized to the organized money market. If the banks do not perform this function, savings either remains idle or used in creating assets, which are low in scale of plan priorities.
2. Creation of Credit: Banks create credit for the purpose of providing more funds for development projects. Credit creation leads to increased production, employment, sales and prices and thereby they cause faster economic development.
3. Channelizing the Funds to Productive Investment: Banks invest the savings mobilized by them for productive purposes. Capital formation is not the only function of commercial banks. Pooled savings should be distributed to various sectors of the economy with a view to increase the productivity of the nation. Then only it can be said to have performed an important role in the economic development of the nation.
Commercial Banks aid the economic development of the nation through the capital formed by them. In our country, loan lending operation of commercial banks subject to the control of the RBI. So our banks cannot lend loan, as they like.
4. Fuller Utilization of Resources: Savings pooled by banks are utilized to a greater extent for development purposes of various regions in the country. It ensures fuller utilization of resources.
5. Encouraging Right Type of Industries: The banks help in the development of the right type of industries by extending loan to right type of persons. In this way, they help not only for industrialization of the country but also for the economic development of the country. They grant loans and advances to manufacturers whose products are in great demand. The manufacturers in turn increase their products by introducing new methods of production and assist in raising the national income of the country.
6. Bank Rate Policy: Economists are of the view that by changing the bank rates, changes can be made in the money supply of a country. In our country, the RBI regulates the rate of interest to be paid by banks for the deposits accepted by them and also the rate of interest to be charged by them on the loans granted by them.
7. Bank Monetize Debt: Commercial banks transform the loan to be repaid after a certain period into cash, which can be immediately used for business activities. Manufacturers and wholesale traders cannot increase their sales without selling goods on credit basis. But credit sales may lead to locking up of capital. As a result, production may also be reduced. As banks are lending money by discounting bills of exchange, business concerns are able to carryout the economic activities without any interruption.
8. Finance to Government: Government is acting as the promoter of industries in underdeveloped countries for which finance is needed for it. Banks provide long-term credit to Government by investing their funds in Government securities and short-term finance by purchasing Treasury Bills.
9. Bankers as Employers: After the nationalization of big banks, banking industry has grown to a great extent. Bank’s branches are opened in almost all the villages, which leads to the creation of new employment opportunities. Banks are also improving people for occupying various posts in their office.
10. Banks are Entrepreneurs: In recent days, banks have assumed the role of developing entrepreneurship particularly in developing countries like India. Developing of entrepreneurship is a complex process. It includes the formation of project ideas, identification of specific projects suitable to local conditions, inducing new entrepreneurs to take up these well-formulated projects and provision of counseling services like technical and managerial guidance. Banks provide 100% credit for worthwhile projects, which is also technically feasible and economically viable. Thus commercial banks help for the development of entrepreneurship in the country.